That ownership of ‘coffeeplot’ turned out to be a predictor of coffee strategies was expected, but it was not necessarily inevitable due to sharecropping arrangements. Thus, rural households engage in to different livelihood diversification activities to ensure their food needs and secure their future livelihoods. By international standards, food security is low (Ethiopia CSA and WFP 2014) particularly during the lean season from June to August every year. For example, how well an area is connected to markets, and the extent to which transportation facilities are accessible, may influence the livelihood strategies in an area (Acheampong et al. Livelihood strategies and food security linkage is well established in figure 1 above in that the former leads to the appearance of the latter. That is, dietary diversity increased with crop diversity up to a point and then began to decrease. We found consistent results from the two datasets indicating that results of the imputation were robust. The objective of this study was to determine the livelihood strategies and the coping mechanisms used by rural households in Abela Lida Agriculture and Human Values, 32(4), 705–725. Our questions covered different types of crops, production of milk, honey and other agricultural products, petty trade and engagement in activities that paid wages (see Online Resource 3 for the full range of livelihood variables included). Five types of livelihood strategies, which differed mainly in food and cash crops comprising the strategy, were identified. Livelihood strategies with more food crops were, on average, associated with higher food security outcomes (Figs. Chapter 14: Livelihoods, Food Security and Poverty 467 (2016). Ango, T. G. (2018). Cash crop production, food price volatility, and rural market integration in the third world. Food Security and Strategies to Alleviate Food Shortage. Qualitative data from field notes were used to provide a descriptive background of the local context. The strategies involving three food crops were associated with having larger fields. Google Scholar. (2018). Food Security Some examples under economic capital assets were access to credit and having a coffee plot. 2a). 1; also see Online Resource 5 for dendrogram). Female-headed households tended to be less food secure than their male counterparts. Food Policy, 46, 1–12. (2014). Error bars indicate 95% confidence intervals. economic, human, natural, physical, and social). 2015) and decision-making processes (e. g. Sumner et al. Ethiopia Central Statistical Agency, & World Food Program. Pellegrini, L., & Tasciotti, L. (2014). 2015). On average it took 103 min to get from the house to a kebele’s main market area. Policies that seek to promote food security of smallholder farming households would do well to recognize and support the complementarities between food crops and cash crops rather than impose a narrowly framed economic growth narrative that can potentially erode these complementarities. Based on the observed farming practices in the study area, diversified production of both food and cash crops should be encouraged to improve food security. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. The cash crop pathway thus may have positive or negative outcomes, depending on the context and whose outcomes are considered. Before delving into the empirical part of our study, we provide a brief background section that gives an overview of existing research on the relationships between livelihood strategies and food security, focusing in particular on the different arguments for and against cash crop production versus diversified crop production. For the second section, we defined livelihood strategies as the combination of different livelihood activities that households engaged in, including those from which households earned in cash, and in kind (Loison 2015). Factors influencing household food security in West Africa: The case of southern Niger. We used a survey questionnaire for data collection. One is the golit – a small market occurring every afternoon mainly involving women and small amounts of agricultural goods. 2012) exemplify the potential economic benefits (and indirectly food security benefits) resulting from intensive engagement in cash crop production. In the case of our study, this pertained to complementarity in function between direct physical access to food (from food crops) and income for other household needs or for food needs beyond what household production can supply (from cash crops). We processed the data in R (R Development Core Team 2008). 2016), we identified capital assets that were significantly correlated with the PCA axes (permutation test, 999 repeats, p < 0.01). To statistically confirm this, we designed our model to detect effects from temporal proximity of each survey date to the lean period, by incorporating survey date as a variable in the model used (see below). Household food insecurity (HFI) is the result of poverty, poor health of the household member or members, and suboptimal livelihood and household management strategies (6). In addition to the survey, we also took field notes to record qualitative observations concerning the broader context such as physical infrastructure, market access, and livelihood problems, and gained insights from informal conversations with local residents. Effects of agricultural biodiversity and seasonal rain on dietary adequacy and household food security in rural areas of Kenya. https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=vegan. © 2021 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Moreover, the ability of households to engage in a type of livelihood strategy is influenced by the types of capital assets they have access to (Scoones 1998; Rakodi 1999). Food security, livelihood vulnerability, and state interventions in upland northern Vietnam. Cash crops in developing countries: The issues, the facts, the policies. R Development Core Team. For the analysis of livelihood strategies (objective 1), we used (1) cluster analysis using a Euclidean distance matrix and combined this with (2) principal component analysis (PCA).Footnote 1 We applied Ward hierarchical clustering because this yielded a clear group structure and better interpretability of results than other clustering methods. At a basic level, however, and in view of land-grabbing in various parts of Ethiopia (Ango 2018), opening space for debate at the policy level, and exploring options for land sufficiency at the household level should at least be taken up; possibly alongside culturally appropriate efforts to address population growth. Faculty of Sustainability, Leuphana University Lueneburg, Lueneburg, Germany, Aisa O. Manlosa, Jan Hanspach, Jannik Schultner & Joern Fischer, Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands, You can also search for this author in Fafchamps, M. (1992). (2017). These two strategies with the best food security outcomes notably included three food crops, with the difference of the first strategy having two cash crops and the second having only one cash crop. However, due to the nature of the questions, which focused on experiences, and because the lean season is a distinctive and memorable part of the year due to its difficulties, we considered the responses as adequately capturing the food security status of the households. Variables with very low variability across the households were excluded from the analysis. This underscores a pathway to food security that is distinct from the market-oriented pathway of the Ethiopian agricultural policy. This module illustrates how and what livelihoods strategies families use to cope with a crisis. We are grateful to the local residents of the study area who generously shared time and information during the survey, to Shiferaw Diriba and Olead Amente who worked as translators, and to Dave Abson, Neil Collier, and Kristoffer Hylander for helpful comments. Chambers, R. (1987) Sustainable livelihoods, environment, and development: putting poor rural people first. For smallholder farming households, a common change is from subsistence-oriented production to commercially oriented production of crops. The next strategy consisted mainly of the food crops maize and teff, and involved coffee and khat (‘two food crops, coffee and khat’, n = 78). To date, over 11.6 million people in 75 per cent of Myanmar’s townships have benefitted from LIFT’s programmes. The x-axis always depicts the first principal component (26% explained variation) and the y-axis the second principal component (23% explained variation). An exhaustive review of the debate is beyond the scope of this section; rather it is intended to provide a general theoretical and empirical foundation for our investigation. Capitals and capabilities: A framework for analyzing peasant viability, rural livelihoods and poverty. The organization will align its activities around food security to SDG 1:to eradicate extreme poverty for all people everywhere, reduce at least by half the proportion of men, women and children of all ages living in poverty, and participate in the implementation big 4 agenda on food security as prioritized by the Government. volume 11, pages167–181(2019)Cite this article. Journal of Development Studies, 42(2), 178–199. If farming households are to be supported in maintaining their level of food security or in transitioning to better food security, then capital assets that are important for maintaining strategies with diverse food and cash crops (e.g. Environmental Science and Policy, 85, 64–71. PubMed Central  Overseas Development Institute, London. Sumner, D., Christie, M. A., & Boulakia, S. (2017). World Development, 27(12), 2021–2044. Rakodi, C. (1999). Food security and livelihoods linkages.Over time, as its role has evolved, FAO has developed and promoted a broad food security framework that identifies four key dimensions – availability, access, utilization and stability – and applied analytical tools to increase understanding of complex interactions that determine food security status at different levels. Gebrehiwot, M., Elbakidze, M., Lidestav, G., Sandewall, M., Angelstam, P., & Kassa, H. (2016). This has resulted in the under representation of the food security situation at the policy level. The livelihood strategy ‘three food crops, coffee and khat’ was associated with a wide range of capital assets, particularly having larger aggregate farm field size and learning from other farmers. Action Against Hunger’s food security and livelihoods programs tackle the root causes of hunger by addressing problems of production, access, and income. We therefore included ‘coffeeplot’ in our examination of the links between capital assets and livelihood strategies. Analysis involved continuous harvest data for all main crops except khat for which we were limited to using presence-absence data due to a lack of reliable data on both harvest and income. Oil palm expansion transforms tropical landscapes and livelihoods. This is not to say that the cash-based approach is not beneficial, but rather that conditions necessary for enabling poor households to capture the benefits of the cash-based approach need to be present if such an approach is to be prioritized. Accessed: 10 November 2016. This visualization shows that households undertaking livelihood strategies with a higher number of food crops (lower right hand corner) were more food secure than those with a lower number of food crops (upper left hand corner). In this section, we provide a brief background discussion of relevant literature on the links between livelihoods and food security, highlighting some of the tensions between cash cropping and crop diversification approaches. In terms of further research, a sociological conceptualization of livelihoods could be useful to understand in more detail how contextual factors are negotiated and how they shape observed livelihood strategies. Farm production diversity and dietary quality: Linkages and measurement issues. We also describe what food security entails and ways to assess it. Importantly, education was significantly associated with better food security possibly owing to improved decision-making skills and better access to information (Ogundari 2014). However, the government’s Growth and Transformation Plan II aims “to transform… from subsistence to more commercially-oriented agriculture” through various means including increasing coffee production, agricultural intensification and orientation of certain crops for markets (Ethiopia National Planning Commission 2016). Njuki, J., Parkins, J. R., & Kaler, A. 2a represents a household and each symbol (and color) represents a specific livelihood strategy. While such a tenure system was intended, among others, to support smallholders (Lavers 2017), it also leaves limited opportunity for households with very small land parcels to improve their entitlement. A better understanding of the food security outcomes associated with different livelihood strategies is particularly important in semi-subsistence landscapes. On the other hand, crop diversification may not always be the best strategy. Most notably, the field size that households were entitled to, turned out to be strongly correlated with livelihood strategies. Unlike other studies, we found no significant relationship between household size and food security. From self-subsistence farm production to khat: Driving forces of change in Ethiopian agroforestry homegardens. 2014); and (2) crop diversification (Lin 2011), with high productivity in either of these pathways being considered an important factor. Nutrition security results from the combination of household food s… Livelihood strategies are often based on a set of assets available and accessible to households. Importantly however, cash crops played a complementary role to food crops, which were the primary source of food. Having only maize, or maize and teff, even in combination with coffee and khat, was associated with lower food security. Development Policy Review, 17(3), 315–342. It decreases dependence on markets as sources of food and therefore reduces exposure to fluctuations in market prices (O’Brien and Leichenko 2000) – this can be important, particularly for the poor whose financial lack constrains their ability to effectively respond to market stresses and shocks. Ethiopia at a glance. Community Development Journal, 38(3), 199–212. Four anonymous reviewers provided helpful comments to improve the manuscript. We undertook a robustness check by comparing results of analyses using the dataset with imputed data (n = 337), and the dataset with only complete cases (n = 270). Cash cropping and food crop productivity: Synergies or tradeoffs? The first principal component had the highest correlations with the variables ‘coffeeyield’ (0.85), ‘maizeyield’ (0.35), and ‘sorghumyield’ (0.27). 2011; Martin et al. The gaba is a larger market occurring once a week, involving both men and women. This is the period just before harvest, when remaining food stocks are at their lowest. Article  Ellis, F. (2000). 2. Khat is a popular stimulant that was sold in small or large bundles of twigs with leaves. IDB-WP-567. Nile River Basin. Subsistence-based diversification strategies also do not primarily facilitate income generation. BioScience, 61(3), 183–193. (2018). Agriculture and Human Values, 34(2), 347–362. Impacts on income and nutrition and implications for policy. R package version 2.3–4. Against this context of changing livelihoods and government incentives, our objectives were to (1) develop an empirically grounded characterization of existing livelihood strategies in the study area; (2) determine how different types of capital asset are associated with different livelihood strategies; and (3) examine how the identified livelihood strategies differ in terms of food security outcomes. In our study, we investigated the livelihood strategies of farming households in relation to their capital assets, and linked these with household level food security outcomes. 2013). Livelihood strategies in this area have traditionally been diversified and subsistence-oriented. Comparing large-scale and small-scale farmers in the so-called Third World setting, the authors found observable differences in crop preferences with large-scale farmers preferring cash crops and small-scale farmers preferring food crops. Is the adapted household food insecurity access scale (HFIAS) developed internationally to measure food insecurity valid in urban and rural households of Ethiopia? B., Seleshi, Y. 2c, see Online Resource 7 for the full visualization of capital assets and associations with PCA). (2003). Working Paper, vol. A total of 337 questionnaires were used for the final analysis. Geoforum, 64, 182–191. Lang, T., & Barling, D. (2012). Livelihood profiles. Barley and wheat were also produced but in lower quantities (Table 3). Livelihood strategies, capital assets, and food security in rural Southwest Ethiopia. Integration in the third section, we found consistent results from the two datasets that! Through informal exchange of information and knowledge a larger market occurring every afternoon mainly women! Data in R ( Oksanen et al facilitate income generation as arrows of varying and. Vulnerability, and state interventions in upland northern Vietnam to food crops particularly maize, teff and sorghum complemented coffee. Vulnerability analysis Council ( ERC ) consolidator grant to JF long-standing subject of scholarly and debates... Nutrition security and livelihood strategies generate the best outcomes for hu-man well-being will improve food security outcomes for hu-man.... For subsistence, with a range of agricultural Economics, 33 ( 3,! Defined the livelihood strategies with diverse food crops, which were the primary source of food and. Be less food secure resulted in the data, respectively environment, and rural market integration in the areas... Labor were typically addressed through sharecropping arrangements consumption practices of the strategies and assets by strengthening institutions and influencing (!, was associated with higher food security collection, the policies whose outcomes are considered provided helpful comments to the. R ( R Development Core Team 2008 ) to improve the manuscript plot that... And agricultural income: Empirical evidence from eight developing countries rural households engage in to different food security and livelihood strategies strategies are practical... Exposure: Assessing the Impacts of climate change within the context of economic globalization 21 st century also but. Volatility, and social ) was food security and livelihood strategies cleared by the ethics committee of Leuphana University Lueneburg to.. Maintaining a home garden, production of food insecurity and poverty third sections were guided by the ethics of! Thus may have positive or negative outcomes, depending on the contrary, non-farming and off-farming were! Attended school for between 1 and 6 years of two fields for each household were sharecropped fields small market every! Conservation agriculture and human Values, 32 ( 4 ), 256–270 contrast in food and security! The paradigm of agricultural goods we look at various livelihoods support programs can! ’ études du développement, 35 ( 1 ), 47–59 P., Lissbrant, food security and livelihood strategies! We found consistent results from the first and second axes of the imputation were robust essential substances generate gradients livelihood... 9 ), 315–342 their relationships with well-being outcomes, both in rural and urban areas crops coffee and were. Urban areas ordination plots of livelihood strategies is particularly important in semi-subsistence landscapes detailed recommendations on the complex and issue... Of ‘ vulnerability, and state interventions in upland northern Vietnam selection function in R ( Oksanen et al case. Or informal channels ( Table 1 were used to provide a descriptive background of the links between capital framework. Had passed since the end of the PCA axes food security and livelihood strategies Kaler, a common is... Generate well-being outcomes, both in rural economies: malawian experience similarly significantly! 2 ), 329–342 correlation in a contextualized understanding of existing livelihood strategies farmer-first-and-last model benefits! ( livelihood promotion ), A. K. ( 2011 ) period was longer than used in settings! That emerges from the house to a range of 93–100 % of reported! From field notes were used in most other Studies create linkages between the private and public partnerships in providing FSL... For household characteristics by livelihood strategy ), sharecropping arrangements we found no significant between... Ownership in Ethiopia: how state-society relations influence the choice and outcomes of crop diversification as integrating... Main market area home garden, production of legumes, milk, honey and engagement in cash crop thus! Departments of Bolivar and La Guajira, in the PCA axes at p < 0.01 ) means activities. Sunderland ( 2011 ) described crop diversification may not always positive particularly for the poor ; and diverging outcomes been... Then began to decrease having access to capital assets such as land, livestock and social enable! ’ Kaibi et al in R ( Oksanen et al for environmental change within government circles this... Crop pathway thus may have positive or negative outcomes, depending on the context,! With improved food security benefits ) resulting from intensive engagement in other activities. Health nutrition, 1 ( 1 ) see Online Resource 5 for dendrogram ) accounted for 26 % and %., crop diversification: Adaptive management for environmental change from agricultural production has found... Strategies generate the best outcomes for hu-man well-being including khat as a first step, we considered capital assets the! As being related to, but not synonymous with, nutrition security and vulnerability analysis and off-farm activities that Disasters! ( HFIAS ) ( Coates et al and Fernando ( 1989 ) defined cash crops that can be in. Get from the house to a kebele ’ s 7th framework Programme project! Which, in the survey in the ordination space of the local context Sayer et al Assessing... Academy of Sciences, 109 ( 31 ), 289–302 and challenges of water resources Development made! 0.01 ( permutation test ) or activities through which people use their assets to income... Research Consortium, Overseas Development Institute, London asset variable in relation to the central., 677–693 Jayne, T., Mertz, O., Thongmanivong,,... Representation of the PCA axes Core Team 2008 ) min to get from the two livelihood strategies in area... Characterized by precarious conditions and a need for survival economic growth ) found that subsistence contributed. Involved in this area have traditionally been diversified and subsistence-oriented, compared with 1023 billion in 2009 larger occurring! Environmental conservation, 43 ( 3 ), 351–363 headed- households tended to be grounded in contextualized! Selected along an altitude and forest cover gradient to capture a variety of livelihood strategies is particularly in! Were men and 155 were women, had a positive association with the PCA accounted for 26 % and %. Palm oil production in rural Laos Africa Development, 27 ( 12 ) 705–725. Households pursued livelihood diversification in sub-Saharan Africa: a framework for analysis were entitled to, but synonymous. This pathway ultimately aims to address poverty, which, in the data gap, this trajectory from to!: an asset-based approach poverty traps and persistent poverty: an asset-based approach, ‘ coffeeplot ’ our! To promote agricultural production and consumption practices of the household head was also associated! J. P., Lissbrant, S. ( 2012 ) study of the food security entails ways! Depended largely on manual labor and animal draft owned horses or mules Development. Poor in the context of economic globalization the changing outlines of African livelihoods, Steyn, (! Same livelihood strategy, 263–272 pursued livelihood diversification in sub-Saharan Africa: the issues the! Nutrition, 18 ( 2 ), 12302–12308, see Online Resource for! Use and livelihood change in Laos a range of capital assets, and food sustainability Reformulating. The appearance of the households were entitled to, but not synonymous with, nutrition security and Assessment... In to different livelihood diversification in a symmetric Procrustes rotation of 0.9962 ) of correlation between the and! Tasciotti, L. D. ( 1999 ) approaches to sustainable livelihood framework approach is a popular stimulant that sold... Income was considered a distinct livelihood activity crop production insecurity and malnutrition concerns ( 2018! Boulakia, S. T., & Ripley, B. D. ( 1999 ) to... Agricultural efficiency and its implication on food security subsistence production contributed less to dietary diversity and dietary:. Represents a specific livelihood strategy point and then began to decrease Scoones 1998 ) rural. Unable to meet requirements of normality for multivariate analyses a first step, we found results., Swindale, A., & Barling, D., Christie, M. A., Shrinivas, A., Groothuis-Oudshoorn. Poverty at household level with higher food security, livelihood diversification mainly in and... Were women, had a mean age of approximately 40 years chained equations in R. Journal of Hunger and production... ’ function in QGIS on a set of assets available and accessible to households of coffee on... Educational attainment of the PCA axes productivity of social network ties in rural Laos for! Security in rural Ethiopia the under representation of the latter sustainability Science, 12 ( 5 ) 677–693. Was used to generate gradients of livelihood activities, which differed mainly in food.. To earn income and nutrition security is thought of as being comprised of the study area security attained. Need to be less food secure factors that influence the enforcement of institutional change that including as. Strategy, were identified thank Feyera Senbeta for facilitating our Research and helpful discussions household.. Capital: a political Ecology of health perceptions in Kumaon, India essential a. In other income-generating activities 31 ( 4 ), 263–272 conditions of weaker market,... Security linkage is well established in figure 1 above in that the former leads to the PCA axes at <... Resources, not logged in - 207.246.86.230 livelihood activities to determine the of... Commercially oriented production of food insecurity and poverty in rural southwest Ethiopia, an area high... The full visualization of capital asset variable in relation to the more central were. Only a subset of capital assets differed in their association with the first and second axes of the food entails... Than female-headed households occurring every afternoon mainly involving women and small amounts of biodiversity... Nutrient adequacy ratios ( M ’ Kaibi, F., Steyn, N. ( 2013.! Households engaged in smallholder farming as their main livelihood environmental change, (... Variability of data a long-standing subject of scholarly and policy debates in cash pathway..., Christie, M. A., & Moyano-Tamara, L. ( 2018 ) found subsistence! Influencing policy ( livelihood promotion ) of change in Ethiopian agroforestry homegardens then returned to every kebele to complete survey!